Modern Forms Of Money Money and Credit Economics Class 10


Cheap and affordable credit would increase incomes of the poor. They would have to give a little portion of their earnings as interest amount. The elderly people and women are the poorest of the poor in our society.

  • Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid.
  • By imposing taxes, states create demand for the currency they issue.
  • There cannot be free coinage in the case of token coins.
  • Process of production cannot start without the participation of money.

(This is usually referred to as having intrinsic value.) Many people cite gold as an example of commodity money since they assert that gold has intrinsic value aside from its monetary properties. To reduce the burden of carrying large quantities of currency, merchants and traders sometimes exchange money substitutes such as written statements of debt that can be redeemed later. These statements can themselves adopt some of the properties of money, particularly if traders use them in lieu of actual currency.

When Were Coins Replaced by Paper Money?

For hundreds of years people thought of money as coins, and then notes and coins with the development of bank notes. During the twentieth century cheques became widely used as a means of payment and later plastic money in the form of credit and debit cards. When a private bank requires more physical currency, the central bank debits its reserve account and delivers the physical currency. In such a situation, the bank might find itself short of reserves. If so, it will frequently be able to borrow them from another bank. But when the banking system as a whole is short of reserves, some banks will have to obtain additional reserves from the central bank.

On the other hand, a token coin refers to a coin having the face value of more than its intrinsic value Token coins are usually made of cheap metals like nickel, copper or bronze. is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. The USD is the abbreviation for the U.S. dollar, the official currency of the United States of America and the world’s primary reserve currency. “Quid” is a nickname for the British pound, also called the pound sterling, the national currency of the United Kingdom.

Money Should Be Durable

Initially, the pieces of metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum, served the purpose of money. However, in later years, these pieces took the form of coins. Refers to a form of money as per the classical approach. The commodity form of money involves commodities, such as cattle, grains, leather, skins, utensils, and weapons. However, in the present time, commodity money is not preferable as it lack certain important characteristics of money, such as uniformity, homogeneity, standard size and weight, portability, and divisibility. However, economists having conventional viewpoint of money were against the addition of the concept time deposit in the definition of money.

In most countries, the government acts to encourage a particular forms of money, such as requiring it for taxes and punishing fraud. When gold and silver are used as money, the money supply can grow only if the supply of these metals is increased by mining. However, if the rate of gold mining cannot keep up with the growth of the economy, gold becomes relatively more valuable, and prices will drop, causing deflation. Deflation was the more typical situation for over a century when gold and paper money backed by gold were used as money in the 18th and 19th centuries.

What are the Forms of Money in a Modern Economy?

Refers to a function of money that helps in determining the value of goods and services. The value of all goods and services are expressed process costing vs job costing in terms of money. Money is taken as the common denominator while measuring the value of goods and services in monetary terms.

  • The RBI monitors that the banks actually maintain a minimum cash balance out of the deposits they receive.
  • Public awareness of the banks and cooperatives should be increased.
  • Even the rupee coin has a metallic value much less than its face value.

They can do this by selling previously purchased government bonds to the central bank or by borrowing from the central bank at a penalty rate. Typically this is executed as an overdraft on the bank’s reserve account. Even so, banks do ultimately rely on government to obtain physical currency and reserves because, as currency monopolist, government is the only source of these funds. Compared to the formal lenders, most of the informal lenders charge higher interest rates. Thus, the cost to the borrower becomes much higher that leads to less income.

From bartering to banknotes to Bitcoin

The absence of collateral is one of the major reasons which prevent the poor from getting bank loans. Whereas, there is no need for collateral or difficult paperwork to take loans from SHGs. When the credit pushes the borrower into a situation from which the recovery is very painful, it is called debt-trap. For example, in the case of crop failure small or marginal farmers have to sell a portion of his/her land to repay the loan. The formal source of credit includes a loan from banks and co-operatives. They mediate between those who have surplus funds and those who are in need of these funds.

modern forms of money include

These serve, respectively, as the fiscal and monetary agents of Congress. SHGs are the groups created by needy persons themselves, especially women to fulfil their credit and loan needs. A typical SHG has members, who meet and save regularly. So, through SHGs, women become economically independent.

Taxation and its legal tender enable power to discharge debt and establish fiat money as currency, giving it value by creating demand for it in the form of a private tax obligation. In addition, fines, fees, and licenses create demand for the currency. This currency can be issued by the domestic government or by using a foreign, accepted currency. An ongoing tax obligation, in concert with private confidence and acceptance of the currency, underpins the value of the currency.

The stability of a particular monarchy or government affected the value of the country’s currency, and thus, that country’s ability to trade on an increasingly international market. Money is valuable as a unit of account—a socially accepted standard by which things are priced and with which payment is accepted. However, throughout history, both the usage and form of money have evolved. Under MMT, fiscal policy (i.e., government taxing and spending decisions) is the primary means of achieving full employment, establishing the budget deficit at the level necessary to reach that goal. Kelton said that “cutting interest rates is ineffective in a slump” because businesses, expecting weak profits and few customers, will not invest even at very low interest rates. Central banks manage liquidity by buying and selling government bonds on the open market.

Financial crimes

The government does not promise to maintain a fixed exchange rate with any foreign currency. Instead, the exchange rate is ‘flexible’ or ‘floating’. As already mentioned, this feature is usually operative, but not always. The currency is not convertible into a commodity at a fixed rate. The government does not promise to convert its currency into a precious metal or some other commodity at a set price.


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